Only Institute
to provide recording daily after class to students. you can practice whole day under faculty guidance. where test and mockup tests are taken regularly. provides all mobile nos of old students on website.

Updated-Unix Basics By JBK

Unix Architecture:
  • Here is a basic block diagram of a UNIX system:

  • Kernel:
    The kernel is the heart of the operating system. It interacts with hardware and most of the tasks like memory management, and file management.
  • Shell:
    When you type in a command at your terminal, the shell interprets the command and calls the program that you want. C Shell, Bourne Shell and Korn Shell are most famous shells which are available with most of the Unix variants.
  • Files and Directories:
    All data in UNIX is organized into files. All files are organized into directories. These directories are organized into a tree-like structure called the file system.
To change file or directory permissions:

cal, date , time , who , whoami , sort , echo, df, du, ping, logout
  • class : class keyword is used to declare classes in Java
  • #!usr/bin/perl
    				print "Enter your name: ";
    				$ name=;
    				print "Hello, ${name} ... you will soon be a Perl creater!";
    				Save it as to a location of your choice.
  • Back at the command prompt, change to the directory where you saved your Perl script.
  • $ cd c:\perl\scripts 
    					$ perl 
    you'll be prompted to enter your name.
    Enter your name: Kiran
    Hello, Kiran
    ... you will soon be a Perl creater!
    -e with perl allows you to run code from the command line, instead of having to write your program to a file and then execute it.
    $ perl -e 'print "Hello World\n";'

    Hello World
We need to create two files .htaccess and .htpasswd in our directory
  • .htaccess file contains security directives for the specific directory
  • .htpasswd file contains the userids and associated encrypted passwords.
  • .htaccess file must contain:
  • AuthUserFile /users/www/userid/welcome_html/class1/.htpasswd
  • AuthGroupFile /dev/null
  • AuthName Private
  • AuthType Basic
  • < Limit GET >
  • require user USERID1 USERID2
  • < / Limit >
  • .htpasswd
  • .To create this file use command
  • htpasswd -c .htpasswd USERID1