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Manual Testing Interview Question Answer Part 3

Test coverage measures in some specific way the amount of testing performed by a set of tests (derived in some other way, e.g. using specification-based techniques). Wherever we can count things and can tell whether or not each of those things has been tested by some test, then we can measure coverage.
Because incremental integration has better early defects screening and isolation ability
It would be before test case designing. Requirements should already be traceable from Review activities since you should have traceability in the Test Plan already. This question also would depend on the organisation. If the organisations do test after development started then requirements must be already traceable to their source. To make life simpler use a tool to manage requirements
To freeze requirements, to understand user needs, to define the scope of testing
We split testing into distinct stages because of following reasons,

1.Each test stage has a different purpose
2.It is easier to manage testing in stages
3.We can run different test into different environments
4.Performance and quality of the testing is improved using phased testing
To measure test effectiveness a powerful metric is used to measure test effectiveness known as DRE (Defect Removal Efficiency) From this metric we would know how many bugs we have found from the set of test cases. Formula for calculating DRE is

DRE=Number of bugs while testing / number of bugs while testing + number of bugs found by user
Metrics from previous similar projects and discussions with the development team
The use of data on paths through the code.
Pre-release testing by end user representatives at the developer's site.
Failure is a departure from specified behaviour.
Is it really a test if you put some inputs into some software, but never look to see whether the software produces the correct result? The essence of testing is to check whether the software produces the correct result, and to do that, we must compare what the software produces to what it should produce. A test comparator helps to automate aspects of that comparison.
Inexpensive way to get some benefit
Identifying test conditions and Identifying test cases.
The most important one must tests first
The fault has been built into more documentation, code, tests, etc
It is a partial measure of test thoroughness.
Test boundary conditions on, below and above the edges of input and output equivalence classes. For instance, let say a bank application where you can withdraw maximum Rs.20,000 and a minimum of Rs.100, so in boundary value testing we test only the exact boundaries, rather than hitting in the middle. That means we test above the maximum limit and below the minimum limit.
Error condition hiding another error condition.
Commercial off The Shelf.
Exploratory testing is a hands-on approach in which testers are involved in minimum planning and maximum test execution. The planning involves the creation of a test charter, a short declaration of the scope of a short (1 to 2 hour) time-boxed test effort, the objectives and possible approaches to be used. The test design and test execution activities are performed in parallel typically without formally documenting the test conditions, test cases or test scripts. This does not mean that other, more formal testing techniques will not be used. For example, the tester may decide to use boundary value analysis but will think through and test the most important boundary values without necessarily writing them down. Some notes will be written during the exploratory-testing session, so that a report can be produced afterwards.
In order to identify and execute the functional requirement of an application from start to finish "use case" is used and the techniques used to do this is known as "Use Case Testing"
The relationship between test cases and requirements is shown with the help of a document. This document is known as traceability matrix
Equivalence partitioning testing is a software testing technique which divides the application input test data into each partition at least once of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. By this testing method it reduces the time required for software testing.
White box testing technique involves selection of test cases based on an analysis of the internal structure (Code coverage, branches coverage, paths coverage, condition coverage etc.) of a component or system. It is also known as Code-Based testing or Structural testing. Different types of white box testing are

1.Statement Coverage
2.Decision Coverage